History of Educational Technology
No written substantiation can tell us accurately who has coined the phrase educational technology. Reformed educationists, scientists, and philosophers at altered time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology.
Educational technology is a convoluted and cohesive process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and restraint of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those troubles involved in all phases of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.
The first stage of educational technology is joined with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens, and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as a substitute for audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational technology is related to the ‘electronic revolution’ with the insertion and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. The use of several audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio, and television brought an innovatory change in the educational scenario. Hence, the educational technology hypothesis was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipment for the applicable presentation of instructional materials.
The third stage of educational technology is connected with the development of mass media which in turn led to the ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since the 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is apparent by the customized process of instruction. The invention of planned learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest hypothesis of educational technology is persuaded by the concept of system engineering or system approach which emphasizes language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies, and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a methodical way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.
Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, contempt the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be sketched back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
During the Stone Age, the explosion of fire by rubbing stones, the manufacture of various handmade weapons and utensils from stones, and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of comprehension of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps.
During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after the presence of bronze and iron; people used them for clearing forests and the establishment of crop farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, archaeological evidence evidenced their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools preserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France, etc. are some of the indications in favor of their cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of the Stone Age derived into the appearance of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these achieves Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.
In the Iron Age people swapped bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the expansion of written scripts.
Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be outlined back to the time when tribal priests structured bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures envisioned to implement a specific culture which was also supported by a number of investigations and evidence.
The more gradual the culture, the more intricate became the technology of instruction deliberate to reflect particular ways of individual and social behavior intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each noteworthy shift in educational values, goals, or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.
The utmost advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of ancient civilizations. These expansions stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was situated in the northwestern region of the Indian Key. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River receptacle of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending up to the Ghaggar-Hakra River vale and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, ( utmost of the part is under moment’s Pakistan and the western countries of ultramodern- day India as well as some part of the civilization extending to southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).
There’s a long-term contestation to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It’s assumed that their jotting was at least seems to be a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 introductory signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to leftism. Utmost of the jotting was planted on seals and sealings which were presumably used in trade and sanctioned & executive work.
Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of invariant weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P.N. Rao etal. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists plant that the Indus script’s pattern is near to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed thesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno- immolations from China include paper, early seismological sensors, restroom paper, matches, iron plow, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspense ground, the oxcart, the parachute, natural gas as energy, the glamorous compass, the raised- relief chart, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder.
With the construct of paper, they’ve given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further cultivating different handwrought products of paper as means of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of filmland of the real effects like catcalls, creatures, different tools, etc. This filmland is popularly called hieroglyph.
Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. The gravestone monuments or sepultures which were discovered and saved ultimately provide the substantiation of the actuality of numerous forms of cultural hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Ultramodern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd-century Announcement, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to the Mediterranean by the Muslim vanquishing. Attestations support that a paper shop was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of the spinning wheel increased the productivity of the thread timber process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with adding the force of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a high factor in the development of publishing technology.
The invention of the printing press was taken place in roughly 1450 Announcement, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German innovator. The invention of the publishing press was a high experimental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced technology dressed society.
In the-industrial phases, while assiduity was simply the handwork at artisan position, the educational processes were reckoned heavily upon simple effects like the slate, the cornucopia book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single textbook book with many illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous with simple aids like maps and filmland.
The time 1873 may be considered a corner in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at the transnational position in which an American academy won the admiration of the preceptors for the exhibition of charts, maps, handbooks, and other accouterments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally famed child preceptor and the originator of the Montessori Method wielded a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of canted accouterments designed to give for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Ultramodern educational technology suggests numerous extensions of Montessori’s idea of set child-centered terrain.
In 1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general-purpose calculating device laid the foundation of the ultramodern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per his design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in the USA. The Computer Supported instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions basically as an instructor as well as the Talking Type pen was developed byO.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in seminaries, sodalities, and universities.
In the morning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its launch of academy broadcasts in 1920 had maintained a rapid-fire pace in making a sound donation to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 countries had the provision for educational broadcasting. Resemblant to this time about 98 of the seminaries in the United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular diurnal programs.
SidneyL. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a tone- tutoring machine called’ Drum Tutor’in 1920. Professor Skinner, still, in his notorious composition’ Wisdom of Learning and art of Tutoring’ published in 1945 contended for the operation of the knowledge deduced from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated tutoring bias as means of doing so.
Although the first practical use of Regular TV broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through TV stations in Berlin, Open circuit TV began to be used primarily for broadcasting programs for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, TV is used for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological ways for the first time. It’s to be watched that in 1960, as a result of the artificial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the field of educational technology. In this way, the morning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia, and now it has reached England, Europe, and India. During the time around the 1950s, the new technocracy was turning its magnet to education when there was a steep deficit of preceptors in America, and thus a critical need for educational technology was felt.
Dr. AlvinC. Eurich and a little latterly his associate, Dr. AlexanderJ. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.
Team tutoring had its origin in America in the medial of the 1950s and was first started in the time 1955 at Harvard University as a part of an externship plan.
In the time 1956, Benjamin Bloom from the USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objects through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objects, The Bracket of Educational Goals, Handbook I Cognitive Sphere”.
In 1961, Micro tutoring fashion was first espoused by DwightW. Allen and his workers at Stanford University in the USA.
Electronics is the main technology being developed in the morning of the 21st century. Broadband Internet access came popular and enthralled nearly all the important services and educational places and indeed in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.
Moment’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of scholars using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, tablets, or maybe scholars are attending a videotape conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been harkening to a podcast or taking in a videotaped lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of education have created new ways to educate and to learn.
Technological changes also motivated the preceptors to pierce a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their assignments as well as to make them competent professionals in their area of concern. At the same time, scholars can use the vast coffers of the Internet to enrich their literacy experience to manage with changing trends of society.
Nowadays scholars as well preceptors are attending forums, conferences, shops at the public and transnational positions by using multimedia techno- coffers like PowerPoint, and indeed they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online literacy ways. Online literacy installation has opened a horizonless number of doors of openings for moment’s learners to make their life happier than ever ahead.